Violent race riots in Memphis, Tennessee, and New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1866 gave greater urgency to the second phase of Reconstruction, begun in 1867. When I was on a lecturing tour in the state of Ohio . The two senators, Blanche K. Bruce and Hiram Revels, were both from Mississippi, the home state of former U.S. senator and later Confederate president Jefferson Davis. Does Revels favor social equality or social segregation? It declared that all people born in the United States are entitled to be citizens without regard to race, color, or previous condition of slavery. This was due in large measure to the northern voter opposition that had developed toward President Johnson because of the inflexible and overbearing attitude he had exhibited in the White House, as well as his missteps during his 1866 speaking tour. He envisioned the redistribution of plantation lands and U.S. military control over the former Confederacy. Once you are finished, click the button below. The Fifteenth Amendment. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 defined citizenship and affirmed that all citizens are equally protected by the law. Congress had passed this act to ensure that Republicans who favored Radical Reconstruction would not be barred or stripped of their jobs. Indeed, the land tax compounded the existing problems of white landowners, who were often cash-poor, and contributed to resentment of what southerners viewed as another northern attack on their way of life. Please visit using a browser with javascript enabled. The South during the early 1870s brimmed with freed slaves and freeborn blacks serving as school board commissioners, county commissioners, clerks of court, board of education and city council members, justices of the peace, constables, coroners, magistrates, sheriffs, auditors, and registrars. 1. Portraits include Ulysses S. Grant, Abraham Lincoln, and John Brown, as well as black leaders Martin Delany, Frederick Douglass, and Hiram Revels. Hiram R. Revels became the first African American to serve in the U.S. Senate in 1870. The sharecropping model left many tenant farmers in such dire straits that it was nearly impossible to break free from their economic shackles. Shed the societal and cultural narratives holding you back and let step-by-step HMH Social Studies American History: Reconstruction to the Present Guided Reading Workbook textbook solutions reorient your old paradigms. We use these sheets frequently in class to get … In 1869, Stanton and Anthony helped organize the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA), an organization dedicated to ensuring that women gained the right to vote immediately, not at some future, undetermined date. Among those who pressed forward despite the setback were Stanton and Anthony. At every step, Congress intervened and put laws in place that circumvented and, in some cases, limited the President’s authority. Edit. Celebrated May 19th, 1870, a commemorative print by Thomas Kelly, celebrates the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment with a series of vignettes highlighting black rights and those who championed them. However, the Fifteenth Amendment continued to exclude women from voting. Ten Southern states were placed under the control of military leaders until such time as they passed the Fourteenth Amendment and put state constitutions in place that aligned with the United States’ Constitution. How would the fact that it operated at the national level, rather than at the state or local level, help it to achieve its goals? . How did many Southern states work around the voting rights guaranteed in the Fifteenth Amendment? question; discussion follows. until they have answered the first question; discussion follows. What were the benefits and drawbacks of the Fifteenth Amendment? Sharecropping practices kept many African Americans in working conditions that weren’t a significant improvement over slavery. The new amendment empowered black voters, who made good use of the vote to elect black politicians. Such examples, however, were relatively few and largely comparable to nineteenth-century corruption across the country. to get access to your one-sheeter, HMH Social Studies American History: Reconstruction to the Present Guided Reading Workbook, The Conflict Over Slavery; Protest, Resistance, and Violence, The Government Restricts Native Americans;Bloody Battles Continue, The Government Supports Assimilation; The Battles of Wounded Knee, A Day in the Life of a Cowboy; The End of the Open Range, Settlers Meet the Challenges of the Plains, Labor Unions Emerge; Union Movements Diverge, A Difficult Journey; Life in the New Land, The United States Aquires Alaska; The United States Takes Hawaii, The Harlem Renaissance Flowers in New York, Hoover Takes Action; The Bonus Army Incident, Mexican American Fortunes; Native American Gain Support, The End of the New Deal; New Deal Programs Endure, Failures of the Treaty of Versailles; The Spread of Totalitarianism, Opportunity, Discrimination, and Adjustment, The United States and Britain Join Forces, The Korean War; The United States in Korea, Meeting Economic Challenges; Social Unrest Persists, The Organization and the Organization Man, LBJ's Path to Power; Johnson's Domestic Agenda, Reaction to the Brown Decision; The Montgomery Bus Boycott, Hispanic and Native Americans Seek Equality, The Movement Experiences Gains and Losses, Cultural Shifts in the 1970s; A Human Rights Foreign Policy, Reagan and Bush Confront Domestic Concerns, The Race for the White House; September 11 and the Aftermath, Bush's Domestic Goals; Confronting Economic Problems. Federal troops were removed from the Southern states and the Democratic majority was entrusted to protect and enforce the rights of African Americans. Which is the best description of Reconstruction? . Played 703 times. In 1871, he gave the following speech about Washington’s segregated schools before Congress. 2 years ago. White southerners reacted with outrage at the changes imposed upon them. Please contact. As part of a compromise to ensure the passage of the amendment with the broadest possible support, drafters of the amendment specifically excluded language that addressed literacy tests and poll taxes, the most common ways blacks were traditionally disenfranchised in both the North and the South. This popular textbook features "Checkpoint" Despite the Fifteenth Amendment’s failure to guarantee female suffrage, women did gain the right to vote in western territories, with the Wyoming Territory leading the way in 1869. Others demanded immediate action. Blacks in former Confederate states elected a handful of black U.S. congressmen and a great many black local and state leaders who instituted ambitious reform and modernization projects in the South. YOU are the protagonist of your own life. African American males would not have the right to vote until the Fourteenth Amendment was passed. Black voter registration in the late 1860s and the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment finally brought what Lincoln had characterized as “a new birth of freedom.” Union Leagues, fraternal groups founded in the North that promoted loyalty to the Union and the Republican Party during the Civil War, expanded into the South after the war and were transformed into political clubs that served both political and civic functions. Search this site. These appeals were largely accepted by women’s rights leaders and AERA members like Lucy Stone and Henry Browne Blackwell, who believed that more time was needed to bring about female suffrage. Workers would be given a modest home, supplies, and a small portion of land to farm for personal use in exchange for also farming the landowner’s land. They are numbered by chapter and section (, Handouts and Worksheets for use with (c) 2008, Who did the Fifteenth Amendment formally grant the right to vote in 1870? The Amnesty Act of 1872 completely flipped the script on Southern politics and halted the progress being made by Reconstruction efforts. How did the Compromise of 1877 effectively end Reconstruction? For his part, Stevens considered that the southern states had forfeited their rights as states when they seceded, and were no more than conquered territory that the federal government could organize as it wished. It was signed into law by President Andrew Johnson. The government would pay farmers to grow specific crops that were particularly in demand. In some states, the state and local governments provided the poor with basic necessities like firewood and even bread. United States History: Reconstruction to the Present. Segregation laws would “sunset” and have to be repealed within the next 20 years. Now is the time to redefine your true self using Slader’s HMH Social Studies American History: Reconstruction to the Present Guided Reading Workbook answers. Moreover, he firmly believed in white supremacy, declaring in his 1868 State of the Union address, “The attempt to place the white population under the domination of persons of color in the South has impaired, if not destroyed, the kindly relations that had previously existed between them; and mutual distrust has engendered a feeling of animosity which leading in some instances to collision and bloodshed, has prevented that cooperation between the two races so essential to the success of industrial enterprise in the southern states.” The president’s racism put him even further at odds with those in Congress who wanted to create full equality between blacks and whites. Table of Contents. Northern Republicans who moved down South, often with intentions of helping rebuild Southern society. Which of the following describes the African American experience in the Reconstruction-Era South? Union Leagues fraternal groups loyal to the Union and the Republican Party that became political and civic centers for blacks in former Confederate states. This illustration by Theodore R. Davis, which was captioned “The Senate as a court of impeachment for the trial of Andrew Johnson,” appeared in Harper’s Weekly in 1868.

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